Coffee production

In this article, we will tell you what types of coffee we have, and introduce you to the fascinating process of its production

A cup of aromatic and invigorating coffee – what could be better in the morning? This drink, like black tea, is one of the most popular in the world. It is made from the beans of the coffee tree, which go through many stages of processing before reaching your kitchen.

The first mention of coffee dates back to the 14th century – it was during this period that travelers from Europe went to Ethiopia. In Africa, the tree grew in the wild, and a little later it was transported to the Arabian Peninsula. This is where the first Arabica appeared. And only after the 16th century, the plant appeared on European soil.

The first mention of coffee dates back to the 14th century – it was during this period that travelers from Europe went to Ethiopia. In Africa, the tree grew in the wild, and a little later it was transported to the Arabian Peninsula. This is where the first Arabica appeared. And only after the 16th century, the plant appeared on European soil.

Coffee production

What types of coffee are industrially important?

In fact, more than 90 different varieties of coffee trees are known today, but only two of them are used in industry – arabica and robusta. Of all the coffee produced, 69% is allocated to Arabica and 29 to Robusta. The remaining 2% are other, less popular varieties.

If you are a passionate coffee lover, you probably know the differences between Arabica and Robusta. But those who are not familiar with the intricacies of coffee traditions are unlikely to know about the difference between them. At least it is aroma and taste, but there are other differences:

  •  the homeland of the Arabica is Ethiopia, and the Robusta is the Congo;
  •  Arabica beans have a slightly oblong shape, while robusta beans are almost round;
  •  Arabica is a small tree, Robusta is a shrub;
  •  robusta is harvested on a flat territory, but for arabica it will have to rise to a height of about 2000 meters above sea level.

Coffee production

 Arabica. This type of coffee has a multifaceted taste. It can be soft and sweetish, or it can be quite strong and even harsh. The aroma is more reminiscent of dried berries and fruits than the classic coffee smell. Moreover, the fruity notes do not disappear even after the beans are roasted. The finished drink has a slight sourness, sometimes sweetness can be present. The product contains a lot of vitamins and minerals, but at the same time, there is very little caffeine.

Robusta. Here, everything is different – the aroma is more reminiscent of the smell of roasted peanuts than fruit. At the same time, it can be so intense and sharp that it even resembles the smell of burnt rubber. Both the aroma and taste of the finished coffee will have a tangible bitterness – this is what many love and appreciate. Robusta is also high in caffeine – if you want a truly invigorating drink, then this is your option. Robusta is most often used for making blends when you need to add a richer and more recognizable aroma to a drink.

Technology coffee production:what equipment is used?

Today everyone can buy different types of coffee: beans, instant or natural ground. They all differ in the way the drink is prepared. But few people know what the technology of coffee production includes. Making coffee beans is the cheapest option, since in this case you don’t need a lot of equipment:

  •  equipment for cleaning grains from various debris. During harvesting from a coffee tree, various debris can get into the raw material, such as leaves, pebbles;
  •  roster. This is the equipment on which you can roast grains;
  •  equipment for creating different blends;
  •  packaging equipment.

And a completely different matter is the production of instant coffee. Weighing equipment, vibrating separator and pneumatic conveyor are used here. For storage, special bins are needed.

Coffee production

How is coffee made?

Making coffee is a lengthy but very interesting process that includes different stages:

1.Planting a plant. The coffee bean is the seed of the coffee tree. It is roasted, ground, and then brewed to obtain aromatic coffee. But if this is not done, the grains are used for planting. First, you need to plant the seeds in containers and leave them in a dark place, regularly watering the plants. Only when the plants are strong enough are they transferred to the plantations. Moreover, they do this precisely during the rainy season – at this time there is a sufficient amount of moisture in the ground, necessary for the normal development of the root system.

2.Harvesting. Often times, a tree has to grow for three years to eventually begin bearing fruit. Fruits that are not yet ripe are green and must be picked when they turn red. Most of the crop can be harvested once a year, but there are areas like Kenya and Colombia where the coffee ripens twice a year. The grains harvested at the beginning and at the end of the season do not have a rich taste and aroma, unlike the raw materials obtained in the middle of the season – it is this that is most often purchased by manufacturing companies. Since coffee mainly grows in mountainous areas, berries are harvested by hand – this is not only a guarantee of ripe beans, but there will also be less garbage in the raw materials. Harvesting can be done in two ways: picking or striping. In the first case, only ripe grains are harvested, in the second – all grains without exception.

3.Grain processing. Berries can quickly deteriorate, and therefore they begin to process them as quickly as possible. There are two ways:

  • washed. First, you need to remove all the pulp from the grain. After that, they are simultaneously sorted and washed under a stream of water. And then they are sent to tanks with water for about a day or two. Only then are they dried;
  •  dry. This method is relevant for countries where there are problems with water resources. After harvest, the grains are laid out immediately under the open sky, where they are dried in the sun. The process lasts as long as the moisture in the raw material is 11%.

4. Cleansing the grains. This is the final stage in preparing the grains for export. Remove the remnants of pulp or parchment from the grains. Polishing can also be carried out, which helps to remove even the smallest particles of pulp. This step is optional, but many people believe that coffee tastes better if it has been polished. In fact, there is no difference between polished and unpolished coffee. After that, the grains are sorted by color, size and weight. All illiquid assets are thrown away.

5. Sending around the world. Green coffee is packed in jute bags and transported around the world by ship.

6. Cupping. This is a check of raw materials for quality and taste. This is done by a special person in a special room. Moreover, this work is carried out several times. To begin with, a specialist must assess the quality of the grains by their appearance – they must have a certain color, there should be no traces of the presence of any pests. After that, take a small amount of grains for test roasting in a roaster, then grind them and pour hot water over them. By the way, the water temperature must be strictly defined temperature. The aroma is evaluated first, and then the taste characteristics. This stage is important not only in order to determine the quality of the drink, but also to create mixtures in the future, to select a roasting method.

Coffee production

7. Roasting. It is at this stage that the green beans acquire their characteristic chocolate hue. This is usually done in a roaster at a temperature of 287°C. At this temperature, the raw material can easily catch fire, and therefore it is constantly and intensively stirred by the machine. When a certain temperature is reached, an oil such as a cafe begins to be produced in the grains – it is precisely this oil that is responsible for the aroma and taste of the drink. After that, the coffee is quickly cooled. There are three types of roasts: dark, light, and medium. The last two are classics, but thanks to the intense roasting, the coffee acquires a bitterness that is liked only by connoisseurs and true fans of the drink.

8. Grinding coffee. The grinding will affect both the taste of the coffee and its preparation. The grains can be crushed or pulverized. However, different coffee techniques require different types of grinding.

9. The last step is packing. Today you can buy coffee in cans, bags, cartons.

10. And only after passing all these stages does the coffee get to the store shelves, where we buy it. Someone prefers to purchase coffee beans, while someone likes an instant drink that does not take much time to prepare.

Coffee production

Production of instant coffee

How is this type of coffee made? Grains, as in the production of other types, go through all stages of preparation. But then the powder is also treated with water. But drying can be done in different ways:

  • The production of instant spray-dry coffee has a very unusual technology. High temperature air is supplied, into which the coffee extract is sprayed – it dries and turns into powder;
  • coffee in granules is also produced by spraying into hot air, but then the powder is soaked to obtain granules;
  • making freeze-dry coffee is a laborious and complex process, and therefore such a drink will cost an order of magnitude higher. To obtain freeze-dried coffee, the extract is frozen, and then all moisture is removed from the crystals. This method allows you to keep all the nutrients in the drink.

Storage of coffee during production

The timing will depend on the containers used, as well as on the form in which the raw materials are stored – in beans or in ground form:

  • vacuum packaging keeps coffee for 1.5 years;
  • in bags with four layers of paper, in combined containers, as well as in plastic bags, both types of coffee will retain their characteristics for no more than six months;
  • if you choose coffee in packaging made of heat-sealable film-based materials, then the product in beans will be stored longer – about a year. But the ground drink is a little less – no more than ten months;
  •  in a paper bag, where the interior is finished with polymer, you can not worry about the product in grains for 9 months, and in the ground state – for 8 months;
  •  in containers made of cardboard with an inner polymer coating, coffee beans will be stored for 10 months, and in powder – only nine.

Coffee production


The tasting is carried out not only at the stage of still green raw materials, but also after the complete preparation of the product. At the same time, special specialists are invited for this work. By the way, they can taste dozens of drinks every day and at the same time continue to feel the subtle difference between them.

The tasting should be held in a special room and even in complete silence – this is necessary for the person to be as focused as possible. Interestingly, coffee cannot be swallowed – every sip spits out. In this case, the drink is poured exclusively into white mugs – this way you can accurately assess the color of the coffee.

Also only silver spoons are used. It is believed that this material alone is not capable of affecting the taste characteristics of the drink.


Coffee is a drink that has a huge following around the world. And everyone chooses for himself and a certain variety, and a certain way of cooking. After all, someone prefers a more aromatic, but not very strong coffee, but someone really needs to quickly cheer up in the morning.

In any case, there is a wide range of coffees on the market today at a variety of prices. Now, knowing all the stages of production and types of different methods of processing coffee beans, you can easily choose the type of coffee drink that suits you in all respects.

Many people are mistaken when they think that instant coffee is all about chemistry. In fact, if you choose a good manufacturer and a quality drink, then such a product can be enjoyed in the same way as a ground one. The differences between them are solely in the manufacturing process.

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